By Oscar Swan
A Concise Grammar of Polish is meant to be used as a supplementary reference textual content at the starting and intermediate degrees of Polish language learn. it's also appropriate to be used because the fundamental textual content in a direction on Polish morphology (although routines would have to be supplied by means of the instructor).
Phonological and morphological techniques are given particular remedy and representation all through. Sections on declension and conjugation goal at a whole description of all general and so much abnormal phenomena. Descriptions of types are liberally supplemented with comments touching on derivation, utilization, and transformations among Polish and English.
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N A G L D I V Singular praca/kula pracę/kulę pracy/kuli = Gsg. = Gsg. pracą/kulą praco/kulo Plural prace/kule = Npl. prac/kul pracach/kulach pracom/kulom pracami/kulami = Npl. This type is defined as having a single soft consonant before the Nsg. ending -a. “Soft” includes both synchronic and historic palatalized and palatal consonants, which means that it is theoretically defined as 49 a feminine noun in a palatalized labial (-pia/-bia/-fia/-wia/-mia), dental affricate (-ca/-dza), alveopalatal (-sza/-ża/-cza/-dża/-rza/-la), or palatal (-sia/-zia/-cia/-dzia/-nia/-ja).
Plural lata/słowa = Npl. lat/słów latach/słowach latom/słowom latami/słowami = Npl. Note that a morphophonemic change of final consonant occurs in the Lsg. In addition, there is a locative alternation of a~e in lato, and an alternation of o~ó in the Gpl. of słowo, conditioned by the zero ending and closed syllable. Neuter velar-stem nouns (stem-final in a velar k/g/ch). jabłko (jabł/ko) ‘apple’/echo ‘echo’ N A G L D I V Sing. -o = Nsg. -a ‘-e -u -em = Nsg. Plur. -a = Npl. -Ø -ach -om -ami = Npl.
G. noc ‘night’. C. Neuter nouns. Neut. I: Basic type: neuter nouns with the nominative singular in a vowel ending (-o or rarely -ę). g. słowo ‘word’. Neut. II: Secondary type: neuter nouns with an unchanging singular. g muzeum. Within each basic type listed, there are additional subtypes which refer to phonological information and are often called hard and soft types. This refers to the type of consonant found at the end of the stem, to which the grammatical ending is added. Since the terms hard and soft are often used, but seldom defined adequately, a few comments on this topic are in order.
A concise grammar of Polish by Oscar Swan