By Harry A. Hoffner
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Additional resources for A grammar of the Hittite language: Reference grammar
8. 46, p. 37, p. , ‘of the king’, ‘to/for the king’, GIŠ ‘from the table’). An exception is the use of the sequence of noun plus its genitive complement () ‘land of the king’, where the genitive marker is not obligatory. 10. For example, only the presence of a Hittite verbal ending attached as a phonetic complement to the end of the Sumerogram ‘seize’ can indicate whether the subject is ‘I’, ‘you’, ‘he’, ‘she’, or ‘they’. 11. Thus - ‘father’ is normally subject, - is direct object, - is indirect object or possessor.
Although can be read either ni or né, is not read *še in Hittite-language texts. Thus, while the i in OH dative-locative ut-ni-i vs. nominative-accusative ut-ne-e ‘land’ might be for disambiguating the vowel, there can be no such motivation for dative-locatives iš-ši-i ‘mouth’ and ḫa-aš-ši-i ‘hearth’. Some sort of length or stress must be indicated in the latter cases. 48. Hittite seems to have distinguished four vowels (a, e, i, u), each of which could be long or short. Despite the claim of Eichner (1980: 156) and Hart (1983: 124–30), there is no basis for assuming a Hittite vowel /o/, spelled with the sign u (reﬂecting prehistoric diphthong *Vu), distinct from /u/, spelled with the sign ú (reﬂecting prehistoric *u).
320). 9. 12 Rare exceptions to this rule are signiﬁcant in that they often mark a clitic boundary. 10 obv. 15 signal a clitic boundary between the accusative singular noun (-un ‘ox’, -un ‘sheep’) and the following clitic local particle -ašta. 10. Scribes write double (geminate) consonants intervocalically as (C)V-VC-CV (na-at-ta ‘not’, a-ap-pa ‘back, again’) or CVC-CV (kat-ta ‘down’). However, alongside regular spellings for geminate consonants we also ﬁnd shorthand (or simpliﬁed) spellings.
A grammar of the Hittite language: Reference grammar by Harry A. Hoffner