By Terje Mathiassen
A descriptive grammar of Latvian
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Extra info for A Short Grammar of Latvian
This characteristic along with its external nominal properties (case marldng and possessive person marking) make nominalizations less likely to be analyzed as CP structures. These characteristics are also found in relative clauses whether they are internally headed (also lrnown as headless) or headed (Lefebvre & Muysken 1988): (24) Warma 1·iku-sqa-y-ta, hamu-nqa. (HEADLESS) Girl see-NOM-ls-Acc come-FUT 3s 'The girl I saw will come' (Lefebvre & Muysken 1988: 187) 17 18 Syntax of Topic and Focus in Quechua (25) Riku-sqa-y-ta warma, hamu-nqa.
The constituents in the right edge can be morphologically marked or not, as shown in examples (25) and (27) respectively, although some speakers prefer the morphologically marked version in (27). This indicates that if a right peripheral structure below IP is available in Quechua, it is restricted to Topic Phrase since focalized elements are not possible at the right edge. Another striking characteristic of right edge elements, at least in some varieties of Southern Quechua, is that, in narrative style, constituents in the right periphery show PF properties not shared by elements at the left periphery.
This marker has scope over the whole sentence but it can also have scope over one constituent The following examples from Cuzco Quechua based on examples from Huallaga Quechua by Weber (1996: 430) illustrate this: (14) Huwan-ta-chu riku-saq? ' (15) Huwan-ta-qa riku-saq-chu? ' In (14) the interrogative marker has scope over the direct object only, while in (15) it has scope over the whole sentence. As noted by Muysken (1995: 390), the Chapter 3. Morphology, syntax, and informational structure in Quechua distribution of the interrogative particle -chu is similar to that of the focalizing particle discussed previously that can appear on various constituents and on the verb.
A Short Grammar of Latvian by Terje Mathiassen