By Terje Mathiassen
Booklet by means of TERJE MATHIASSEN
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Very hot’’ is descriptive: it measures a degree and intends to be objective, and can be contrasted with comparative (X is hot but Y is hotter). ‘‘Nicely hot’’ does not allow such a contrast (*X garam-garam hai par Y zyada garam(-garam) hai) because is does not measure the degree. It is not descriptive and that is the reason why it sounds somewhat like a subjective appreciation. ). Quality is emphasized, but rather for its adequateness to the customer’s expectations than for its objective degree.
VahaˆN akele baiThe-baiThe uˆb gayaˆ here alone sat-sat bore went ‘he got fed up of sitting here (inactive)’ d. rote-rote uskıˆ aˆNkheN suˆjh gaıˆN crying-crying his eyes swell went ‘his eyes got swollen by (repeatedly, thoroughly) crying’ If the main verb represents avoidance (« be-saved/escape », « remain, stay ») and the participle action or event, reduplication means that the accumulation of occurrences does not reach the normally expected result, hence the lacunar value in (8): (8) a. vah girte-girte bac gaya 3s falling-falling escape went ‘he almost fell (failed to fall)’ b.
She does not ironize either on the general designation of the learned Brahmins by the word ‘‘pandit’’, or on its adequateness as an appellative for other people – she keeps calling the old Master ‘‘pandit’’. But she refuses, in agreement with the young master himself, to use a term he does not like, inadequate for this only reason. Moreover, by doing so, she opposes her husband, a servant but a traditionalist too. The echo construction makes fun of the husband’s concept of appellatives. The conﬂict between the two interpretations, that of B (S1) the husband, and that of A (So) the wife, is about the interpretation of both speech-act participants regarding the validity of the designation ‘‘pandit’’ for the young master: you think it is a good one, I think it is absurd.
A Short Grammar of Lithuanian by Terje Mathiassen