New PDF release: Acamprosate in Relapse Prevention of Alcoholism

By D. M. Lovinger (auth.), PD Dr. Michael Soyka (eds.)

ISBN-10: 3642801935

ISBN-13: 9783642801938

ISBN-10: 3642801951

ISBN-13: 9783642801952

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Extra resources for Acamprosate in Relapse Prevention of Alcoholism

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As the presence of alcohol is maintained for a period of several days, opposing adaptive responses are gradually induced in the brain which eventually balance the effect of alcohol. The brain then performs relatively normally even while alcohol is still present (tolerance). However, if alcohol is then rapidly removed from the brain (withdrawal) the adaptation is no longer balanced by the drug, and the system "overbalances" into excitation. The early consequences of this, anxiety and dysphoria, are thought to play major roles in the negative reinforcements for drinking behaviour.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 14(2): 352 Willetts J, Balster RL, Leander JD (1990) The behavioral pharmacology of NMDA receptor antagonists. Trends Pharmacol Sci 11(10): 423-428 Williams K (1993) Ifenprodil discriminates subtypes of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor: selectivity and mechanisms at recombinant heteromeric receptors. Mol Pharmacol44: 851-859 Williams K, Russell SL, Shen YM, Molinoff PB (1993) Developmental switch in the expression of NMDA receptors occurs in vivo and in vitro. Neuron 10: 267-278 Wong EHF, Kemp JA (1991) Sites for antagonism on the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor channel complex.

True Withdrawal and Pseudo-withdrawal The chemical basis for true alcohol withdrawal is thought to be that adaptations which have been induced in the brain by the long-term presence of alcohol are exposed by removal of the drug; these adaptations then cause the functional changes that make up the withdrawal syndrome (Samson and Harris 1992; Littleton and Little 1994). The sequence of events can be represented as a cartoon see-saw (Fig. 2) in which withdrawal occurs because of a chemical "overbalance" when the drug leaves the brain.

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Acamprosate in Relapse Prevention of Alcoholism by D. M. Lovinger (auth.), PD Dr. Michael Soyka (eds.)

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