By Goran Bergman
I. advent 3
II. tools 7
1. fabric and means of recording 7
2. movie research 7
three. The meteorological facts 9
III. The id of the migrants 10
IV. the rate and course of migration thirteen
1. the rate of flight and its dependence on a number of exterior and internal
2. The path of migration and the criteria affecting it 21
three. The impact of topographical components at the course 36
V. The influence of meteorological components at the depth of migration 44
1. power and course of the wind 45
2. Cloudiness 47
three. Visibility 49
four. Temperature 50
VI. The geographical distribution of the migration 50
References fifty seven
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Additional resources for An analysis of the spring migration of the Common Scoter and the Long-tailed Duck in southern Finland
Biologically , the occurrence of a relationship of this kind is easy to understand because it is bound to make migration more economical, reducing the energy expenditure of the birds per unit distance considerably. The results thus confirm PuTKOXEx"s (1942) statement about the lack of migration of the present birds with NE winds. On the other hand, the inter pretation put forward by BERGMAX (194 1 ) is not generally valid. He found that ·winds between E and S were especially favourable for migration, as long as their strength did not exceed 8 m/sec.
Some condit ions are clearly favourable for migration, for instance, a SW wind directly increases ground speed, while on the other hand SE and �T\V winds result in lateral displacement with reference to the normal direction of migration. 45 ACTA ZO OLOGICA FENNICA 1 0 5 It is obvious that the drawbacks of unfavourable weather conditions can be avoided and the advantages of favourable conditions utilized if the release of migration is governed by these in an appropriate way. The existence of such effects should be manifest in correlations between certain meteorological variables and the intensity of migration.
Flight in over land west of the Porkala peninsula in the twilight of the late evening absorbs the greatest part of the birds flying at high altitude visible from the archipelago. These flocks would in full daylight still avoid the coast between Porkala and Helsingfors. Before the migration after 22. • s reaches its full intensity, the intensity observed over the Esbo archipelago is at a minimum for some time, the flocks flying at low altitude still being too far out to be heard and the flocks at high altitude having already passed the coast.
An analysis of the spring migration of the Common Scoter and the Long-tailed Duck in southern Finland by Goran Bergman