By Jung-yao Lu
The comparative research of old linguistics specializes in reconstructing historical styles in keeping with diachronic files and typological info from numerous languages or dialects in a language crew. the last word objective of the comparative reconstruction which calls for major cross-linguistic commentary and theoretical reasoning is to illustrate the old technique of language alterations. This ebook considers the diachronic improvement of either the chinese and the Naxi language, focusing fairly upon six contentious linguistic concerns which are linked to quite a few linguistic adjustments in so much parts of the grammar of those languages, together with phonological alterations, semantic adjustments, syntactic adjustments, and contact-induced adjustments. those linguistic matters are: tonal splits in proto-checked syllables and subgrouping of Loloish; the semantic improvement of go back in chinese language; the semantic improvement of absorb chinese language; the advance of agentive passive markers in sure dialects of chinese language; definiteness and nominalization, relativization, and genitivization in chinese language; and the improvement of nominalization, relativization, and genitivization in Naxi. This quantity presents new tools and views by which those matters will be analyzed and resolved at the foundation of typological and diachronic facts. It makes use of cross-linguistic facts from chinese language and the Tibeto-Burman languages with a view to reconstruct a number of diachronic advancements in chinese language and Naxi.
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8 for details. Note that all of the *checked syllables have lost their ending stop entirely in Mandarin dialects. 8 below are available in Appendices H and I. 7. 8. The *checked syllable with voiceless initial in dialects of Mandarin Karlgren Beijing Shenyang (儈ᵜ≹) 1 pen (ㅄ) *piuet 214 213 2 peel () *pok 55 33 3 pick (᪈) *thiek 55 35 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 bamboo (ㄩ) color (㢢) snow (䴚) rule (ቪ) holiday (㢲) pigeon (呭) horn (䀂) *tiuk *siŸk *siu¨t *tshi¨k *tsiũt *kԥp *kok 35 51 214 214 35 55 214 35 213 213 213 213 33 33 Another pattern of tonal “irregularity” has been found in other dialects of Mandarin.
The original final stops in the Mandarin dialects of Chengdu and Kunming and the Xiang dialect of Changsha have disappeared altogether. The Gan dialect of Nanchang has preserved -t and -k from the origin final stops, but *-p has been replaced by -t. 14 below are available in Appendices L and M. 14 as follows: YZ refers to Yangzhou; NJ refers to Nanjing; CD refers to Chengdu; KM refers to Kunming; CS refers to Changsha, and NC refers to Nanchang. 13. 14. The *checked syllable with voiceless initial in Mandarin, Xiang, & Gan 1 pen (ㅄ) YZ 4 NJ 5 CD 31 KM 31 CS 24 NC 5 2 peel () 4 5 31 31 24 5 3 pick (᪈) 4 5 31 31 24 5 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 bamboo(ㄩ) color (㢢) snow (䴚) rule (ቪ) holiday (㢲) pigeon (呭) horn (䀂) 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 5 5 5 5 5 5 In summary, based on the discussion above, it is clear that all of the patterns of tonal splits including “regularity,” “flip-flop,” “irregularity,” and “un-split” occur in Chinese.
2, the common ancestor “Proto-Burmo-Qiangic” of both *LB and *Na-Qiangic can be subdivided into four language branches: Proto-Loloish, Proto-Burmish, Proto-Naish, and Proto-Qiangic. *LB and *Na are siblings, equidistant from their common ancestor. Therefore, the Naxi language, which was derived from Proto-Naish, is excluded from not only Loloish but also Lolo-Burmese. 2. 2. Kang Chen and Yongsui Li The majority of TB linguists who graduated from the Department of Minority Language and Literatures at Minzu University of China (ѝཞ≁ ᯿བྷᆖ, formerly known as the Central University for Nationalities), including Kang Chen and Yongsui Li, have formed a consensus regarding the mechanism of tonogenesis in Loloish.
An Investigation of Various Linguistic Changes in Chinese and Naxi by Jung-yao Lu