By J. F. Nunn (Auth.)
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Additional resources for Applied Respiratory Physiology
They correspond to horizontal parts of the loop in (a). 9). Total lung capacity, functional residual capacity and residual volume all contain a fraction (the residual volume) which cannot be measured by simple spirometry. However, if one of these volumes is measured (most commonly the FRC), the others can easily be derived. Measurement of FRC Three techniques are available. The first employs nitrogen wash-out by breathing 100% oxygen. Total quantity of nitrogen eliminated is measured as the product of the expired volume collected and the concentration of nitrogen.
The relationship approximates to linear over the normal tidal volume range. The calibre of the small air passage decreases in parallel with alveolar volume. 12) and there is widespread airway closure at residual volume, particularly in older subjects. Values in the diagram relate to the upright position. fusion ratios and therefore gas exchange. These matters are considered in detail in the appropriate chapters of this book. At first sight it might be thought that the subatmospheric intrapleural pressure would result in the accumulation of gas evolved from solution in blood and tissues.
Reopening of collapsed functional units (probably primary lobules) may be seen during reexpansion of the lung at thoracotomy. Elastic recoil of the lungs 33 Recruitment of closed alveoli appears at first sight to be a plausible explanation of all the time-dependent phenomena described above but there are two reasons why this is unlikely. Firstly, the pressure required for reopening a closed unit is very high and is unlikely to be achieved during normal breathing. Secondly, there is no histological evidence for collapsed alveoli in normal lungs at functional residual capacity.
Applied Respiratory Physiology by J. F. Nunn (Auth.)